Their extremely total report occurs in Bad Dialectics, that is discussed after
Properly, during the creating good “dialectic away from enlightenment” the new article authors as well seek to do a great dialectical enlightenment off enlightenment perhaps not instead of Hegel’s Phenomenology from Soul. “Determinate negation” (bestimmte Negation) demonstrates that immanent grievance is the solution to wrest insights out-of ideology. An excellent dialectical enlightenment from enlightenment “shows for each and every picture since script. It teaches us to realize regarding [this new image’s] has actually the entryway from falseness and that cancels their power and you can hands they off to facts” (De- 18). Beyond and through including determinate negation, an effective dialectical enlightenment of enlightenment and additionally remembers the origin and you can purpose out-of thought by itself. Such as recollection is the performs of one’s build given that notice-meditation out of envision (der Begriff als Selbstbesinnung de l’ensemble des Denkens, De thirty-two). Conceptual worry about-meditation indicates that believe arises from the corporeal demands and you will wishes which get destroyed whenever consider will get just software from human mind-preservation. In addition it demonstrates that the objective of consider isn’t to help you remain the latest blind control of nature and humans however, to indicate into reconciliation. Adorno turns out the main points associated with the conception in his after that lectures for the Kant (KC), integrity (PMP), and metaphysics (MCP) along with their books to your Husserl (AE), Hegel (H), and you may Heidegger (JA).
step three. Important Public Concept
Dialectic off Enlightenment presupposes a significant societal theory in debt so you’re able to Karl Marx. Adorno reads Marx because a beneficial Hegelian materialist whoever critique regarding capitalism unavoidably is sold with a feedback of one’s ideologies one capitalism restores and you will means. One of those is exactly what Marx called “the fresh new fetishism away from commodities.” Marx aimed his complaints out-of commodity fetishism against bourgeois societal experts whom only explain the latest capitalist savings but, by doing so, additionally misdescribe they and you will suggest a false personal sight. Predicated on Marx, bourgeois economists always disregard the exploitation inherent so you’re able to capitalist manufacturing. They fail to just remember that , capitalist creation, for all its body “freedom” and “equity,” need certainly to extract extra value from the work of one’s working class. Like ordinary firms and you may users around capitalist criteria, bourgeois economists dump the newest commodity because an excellent fetish. It treat it because if it was a simple object, that have a lifetime of its very own, you to in person https://datingranking.net/it/incontri-con-feticismo-del-piede/ describes almost every other merchandise, for the independence on individual interactions that actually endure all the products. Marx, in comparison, argues you to definitely any type of renders something an item extends back so you can individual means, desires, and you may techniques. Brand new item don’t have “have fun with really worth” whether or not it did not see individual wants. It would not have “exchange really worth” in the event that no body wished to exchange it to possess something else. And its particular exchange worthy of couldn’t end up being calculated in case your product failed to share with most other commodities a good “value” produced by the new expense from peoples labor power and you can mentioned by the the average labor time socially had a need to establish commodities of various sorts.
Adorno’s social theory tries to build Marx’s main wisdom applicable to “late capitalism.” Even when from inside the contract that have Marx’s data of the item, Adorno believes their feedback of product fetishism does not wade far enough. Significant transform has actually took place the structure away from capitalism just like the Marx’s time. This calls for updates on a number of topics: the newest dialectic between pushes off manufacturing and you can relations out of creation; the connection ranging from condition and you can savings; the newest sociology from groups and you can group understanding; the sort and you will aim of ideology; and also the part out of specialist societies, such as progressive ways and you may public principle, for the criticizing capitalism and you will needing the brand new conversion out of society since the a whole.
The main clues to those updates are from a theory off reification advised from the Hungarian socialist Georg Lukacs about 1920s and out-of interdisciplinary strategies and discussions conducted of the people in the fresh Institute from Personal Search regarding the 1930s and you can 1940s. Strengthening towards Maximum Weber’s idea regarding rationalization, Lukacs argues your capitalist benefit is no longer you to definitely business regarding society close to anyone else. Rather, commodity exchange is just about the main organizing concept for everyone sectors regarding area. This allows item fetishism in order to penetrate all of the social associations (e.g., rules, management, journalism) and additionally most of the educational specialities, as well as viewpoints. “Reification” describes “this new architectural process where new product means penetrates existence for the capitalist people.” Lukacs is actually particularly concerned with exactly how reification can make humans “look like mere one thing obeying brand new inexorable laws of areas” (Zuidervaart 1991, 76).